Chapter 14: The news release

April 28, 2009 at 10:47 pm (chapter summaries)

  Chapter 14 http://www.pearsonhighered.com/educator/academic/product/0,3110,0205626130,00.html  discusses the news release. A news release is also known as a press release and has been around since 1906. It is the most commonly used public relations tactic. They are sent to journalists and editors with the hope of getting them published. It is important that news releases are accurate, well informed, and without any grammatical errors. Some ways to make a release more appealing would be to add photos.

  Advisories are kind of like an alarm for journalists. It lets them know when a news worthy story is about to surface. It can be a press release, or a new product which is about to be launched.  Media kits are also an important element for launching s product. The kits can contain photos, descriptions, and other creative ways to inform a potential buyer about it. There are five ways to distribute publicity materials:

  • mail
  • fax
  • e-mail
  • electronic wire services
  • web press rooms
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Chapter 11: Reaching a multicultural and diverse audience

April 28, 2009 at 2:01 pm (chapter summaries)

      In chapter 11 http://www.pearsonhighered.com/educator/academic/product/0,3110,0205626130,00.html the book discusses the importamce of reaching multicultural and diverse audiences. It is important for public relations workers to know just how to appeal to their audience. Audiences are sometimes divided by age. You need to know how to appeal to different age group, such as the youth market. Youth accounts for over $350 billion of purchasing power. You would not pitch an idea the same way to the youth market as you would to seniors. The idea you pitch to the youth would probably seem to radical of an approach if you pitched the same idea in the same way to the seniors, and if you pitched it to the youth how you would to the seniors they would probably think it was outdated or boring. You need to know the correct direction to approach your audience.

     A great way to reach your audience is through media. Americans spend about 3,500 hours a year using media. A message can be transmitted through television, radio, print media, Internet, and many other ways.

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Chapter 9: Public opinion and persuasion

April 28, 2009 at 1:40 pm (chapter summaries)

       In chapter 9 http://www.pearsonhighered.com/educator/academic/product/0,3110,0205626130,00.html the book discusses public opinion of public relations and the power of persuasion. It can be difficult to measure public opinion. An opinion a lot of the time has to do with an individuals self interest. The primary catalyst is public discussion. The people who are the catalystsare referred to as opinion leaders. There are two types of these leaders. There are formal opinion leaders and informal opinion leaders. It is the job of these leaders to make sure the opinion makes it to the public, often through mass media.

      Persuasion is another important factor. It can be used to change or neutralize the public’s opinion. It can have an influence that can change the opinion of the people. The factors of persuasion are:

  • audience analysis
  • source credibility
  • appeal to self-interest
  • message clarity
  • timing and context
  • audience participation
  • suggestions for action
  • content and structures of messages
  • persuasive speaking

      However, it is important to remember ethics when it comes to persuasion. There are two reasons for using an ethical approach. If you don’t the public will become suspicious and then they will not trust you. It will be difficult to sell your ideas if they do not trust you. Another reason is that it will disfavor your clients if you do. They do not want to be represented misleadingly.

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Chapter 8: Evaluation

April 28, 2009 at 3:42 am (chapter summaries)

     Chapter 8 http://www.pearsonhighered.com/educator/academic/product/0,3110,0205626130,00.html has to do with the evaluation process. This is the fourth and final step to the public relations process. Evaluation is the measurement of the results compared to the objectives you set fourth during the planning process. The objective is a prerequisite for the evaluation. Once you have an objective, after the program has been conducted you have something to look back on(the objective) to see if you achieved what you wanted to. It is very important to do an evaluation, that way you can make alterations and overall improvements.

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Chapter 7

April 28, 2009 at 2:21 am (chapter summaries)

      Chapter 7 http://www.pearsonhighered.com/educator/academic/product/0,3110,0205626130,00.html focuses on communications. This is the third step in the public relations process. It is also known as the execution process. This step is the most visual of all the steps. Communication is the way that the final objective is achieved. The purpose of this step is to inform, persuade, motivate, and achieve a mutual understanding. It is important to ensure that the message is successfully received, or understood.

      It is important that different ways of communication are used depending on the audience you are trying to reach. You need to find the most effective way to appeal to your target audience. If you don’t know how to properly communicate to your audience than your message will not get across and it would have been a pointless attempt. A good way to create an understanding between the communicator and the audience is to focus on the ‘common language’. You also want to make sure that they take that message and remember it.

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Chapter 6: Program planning

April 28, 2009 at 12:04 am (chapter summaries)

     In chapter 6 http://www.pearsonhighered.com/educator/academic/product/0,3110,0205626130,00.html the book lectures on the importance of program planning. Program planning is the next step after research in the public relations process. Planning programs is a way to take what you learned from the research gathered and apply it. It is the “action” in the R.A.C.E acronym. A good program should successfully showcase an organization. It should be strategically planned. A common approach to planning ic the management by objective model. The model has steps which can be used as a checklist for program planning. The steps are as follows:

  • client/employer objectives
  • audience/publics
  • audience objectives
  • media channels
  • media channels
  • media channel objectives
  • sources and questions
  • communication strategies
  • essence of the message
  • nonverbal support

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Chapter 5: Research

April 27, 2009 at 10:56 pm (chapter summaries) ()

       Chapter 5 http://www.pearsonhighered.com/educator/academic/product/0,3110,0205626130,00.html discusses public relations research. Research is a large part of the planning, program development, and evaluation process of PR work.  Research is gathered many different ways. A survey is a simple way to gather useful information. There are three different types of research; secondary, quantitative and qualitative. Secondary research is broader and uses a variety of techniques to conduct research. Qualitative research is useful for decipheringattitudes, and message effects. It entails content analysis, interviews, focus groups, copy testing, and ethnographic techniques. Qualitative research is the type of research used the most for public relations purposes. Quantitative research is helpful in that it allows people within the pr firms to have insight which can help them formulate effective programs.  These three different research techniques allow public relations firms to operate and overall produce a better performance.

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Chapter 4 Public Relations, Departments, and Firms

April 21, 2009 at 10:38 pm (chapter summaries)

    In http://www.pearsonhighered.com/educator/academic/product/0,3110,0205626130,00.html the book discusses the different departments and firms within PR and the roles they have. George Westinghouse created the first department in Pr in 1889. His department concept is still used in today’s electronic world.

     The role fo public relations in an organization depends on the specific type of the organization. Larger firms are more likely to include Public Relations in their policy making process. Larger companies in a higher competitive market find it necessary to include PR in this process.

  The executive leaders of a PR department usually include one of three titles. Either a manager, director, ot a vice president. Departments are usually divided into specialized sections. A survey that PR weekly took in 2006 asked Pr departments what different tasks they performed. They included:

  • media relations (which accounted for 79.5% of PR functions)
  • crisis management (62.6%)
  • employee communication (59.4%)
  • online communications (58%)
  • special events(56.6%)
  • community relations(55.7%)
  • reputation management (54.8%)
  • product/brand communication (51.1%)
  • marketing (45.7%)
  • public affairs/ governmental relations(35.2%)
  • annual/quarterly reports (34.7%)
  • product/brand advertising(34.2%)
  • issues advertising (31.3%)
  • cause-related marketing(27.9%)
  • financial/investor relations(21.5%)
  • monitoring blogs (20.5%)
  • writing blogs(12.3%)
  • blog relations(11.9%)

 I was really surprised when I looked over theese percentages, I didn’t realize all the functions of public relations. Nor did I realize how important and useful blogging is as a function.

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Chapter:3 what is ethics?

April 21, 2009 at 9:16 pm (chapter summaries)

 http://www.pearsonhighered.com/educator/academic/product/0,3110,0205626130,00.html Ethics focuses on what we think is right and wrong. It has to so with how we live our lives. There are three value orientations. They are; absolute, existential, and situational.

  • Absolute: this belief is that every decision is seen as either ‘right’ or ‘wrong’.
  • Existential: this focuses on Aristotle’s idea that individuals should seek a balance between extremes.
  • Situational: the idea that each decision is based on what decision would cause the least or most harm.

    The larges public relations organization is PRSA. This stands for the Public Relations Society of America. Its headquarters are in New York. It has almost 22,000 members.

     The chapter discusses the importance of ethics and different protocals different PR firms have. PRSA has 6 main points it stresses about values; advocacy, honesty, expertise, independence, loyalty, and fairness. Chapter three also mentions how codes vary depending on the situation.

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chapter:1 what is public relations

March 26, 2009 at 1:20 am (chapter summaries)

The follwong are notes I gathered from chapter:1 from thehttp://www.pearsonhighered.com/educator/academic/product/0,3110,0205626130,00.html

   Public Relations involves many different aspects. Few people fully comprehend all that this line of work entails. Such as; research, analysis, policy information, programming, communication, and feedback. Long and Hazelton developed a good definition for PR. They described it as “a communication function of management through which organizations adapt to, alter, or maintain their environment for the purpose of achieving organizational goals”.

    the key words to public relations are:

  • deliberate
  • planned
  • performance
  • public interest
  • two-way communication
  • management function

    Public relations focuses on a process. This process can be remembered by RACE. These four letters stand for the four key elements which are; Research, Action, Communication, and Evaluation. Another public relations process is known as the “never-ending cycle”. This model includes these six steps; research and analysis, policy formulation, programming, communication, feedback, and assessment.

The following are the basic components that make up public relations:

  • counseling
  • research
  • media relations
  • publicity
  • employee/ member relations
  • community relations
  • public affairs
  • governemnt affairs
  • issues management
  • financial relations
  • industry relations
  • development/fund-raising
  • multicultural relations/workplace diversity
  • special events
  • marketing communications

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